- The OBR's forecast for the effective mortgage rate looks
implausibly high; we expect a smaller drop in RHDI...
- ...But its forecast for the saving rate to fall to a joint-record low, supporting spending, jars with past experience.
- The saving rate usually rises when the unemployment rate increases; rising rates will spur debt repayments.
- September’s data showed no let up in the rate of core price rises; the MPC will continue to hike rates quickly.
- Core CPI inflation, however, will ease soon; firms have too much stock, and demand is about to plunge.
- The outlook for energy CPI inflation is unclear again, but rising unemployment will let the MPC focus on the core.
- We’ll need to raise our forecast for CPI inflation in Q2 2023 by 5pp, if Ofgem’s unsubsidised price cap returns.
- One option for the government is to maintain grants for low income households; these wouldn’t lower the CPI.
- The MPC will worry more about demand than inflation expectations; unemployment will have risen by April.
- Employment was broadly flat in Q3, but the recent jump in firms' borrowing costs signals a big fall ahead.
- Long-term sickness looks set to rise further, but government policies likely will boost the workforce in 2023.
- We expect the unemployment rate to peak at about 5.5%, easily high enough to subdue wage growth.
- The supply of existing homes on the market needs to rise sharply to depress house prices substantially...
- ...But the link between unemployment and forced sales has loosened, as fewer low-to-mid earners own homes.
- We look for a 5% drop in house prices over the next 12 months, but a severe decline in housing transactions.
- A recession now is all but inevitable; the key questionis how the pain will be distributed.
- Hiking Bank Rate to 6% would crush domestically-generated inflation; mortgage defaults would soar.
- Hiking more slowly would depress sterling and boost imported inflation, but is the lesser evil for the MPC.
- The improved near-term outlook for CPI inflation has left the MPC less anxious about second-round effects.
- The MPC is awaiting more details on fiscal policy; a 75bp hike in November can't be ruled out...
- ...But the proposed tax cuts will do little to boost GDP, and spending might be cut; we still expect a 50bp hike.
- The effective interest rate for all mortgages has risen only slowly to date, but now looks set to soar...
- ...As a rising number of borrowers refinance, and as lenders respond to the further jump in risk-free rates.
- Expect a 1pp disposable income hit in 2023 if Bank Rate tops 4%, or a 0.7pp drag if Bank Rate tracks our forecast.
- We think the MPC will raise Bank Rate by 50bp next week, despite other central banks rushing ahead...
- ...Q3 GDP is set to undershoot the MPC’s latest forecast, while the inflation outlook has improved greatly.
- Proposed tax cuts are too small to move the inflation needle, and likely will be partly funded by spending cuts.
- Employment has stopped rising, but labour market slack hasn't accumulated, due to increasing inactivity.
- We expect labour demand to remain flat but the workforce to grow, as immigration and participation recover.
- For now, wage growth is too hot for the MPC, but building slack and falling CPI inflation will slow it in 2023.
- Business surveys and vacancy data point to another negligible rise in payroll employees in August.
- Wage growth likely remained slightly too strong for the MPC, but probably didn't gain more momentum.
- BRC data point to a below-consensus fall in retail sales in August; the MPC won't up the hiking pace.
- Low unemployment means few homeowners will be forced to sell up, and construction already is declining.
- Landlords, however, likely will struggle to raise rents in line with the jump in their mortgage payments.
- We expect the stock of homes on the market, therefore, to rise over the next year, weighing on house prices.
- Households continued to save less and borrow more in July, in order to maintain consumption.
- Looking ahead, though, people lack the fire-power to withstand future income shocks.
- We now think a winter recession will be avoided only if the government beefs up financial support massively.
Retail sales edged up in July and will benefit in August from Cost of Living grants and the NI threshold hike.
October's energy bill increase will hit real incomes by nearly 4pp; current grants will offset only half that hit...
...But the next PM likely will beef up and extend the current grants sufficiently to prevent a recession.
Growth in employment in the three months to June undershot the consensus by the most in nearly two years.
The workforce, by contrast, is finally picking up, assisted by a recovery in immigration, which will be maintained.
Vacancy and payroll employee data indicate labour demand is stagnating; unemployment will rise further.
Q2 GDP would have held steady without the Jubilee and risen by 0.9% q/q if Covid spending hadn't plunged.
The 0.2% q/q drop in households' real expenditure was a good result, given the massive fall in real incomes.
A recession isn't inevitable, provided fiscal support is increased substantially and households draw on savings.
The MPC currently expects the unemployment rate to remain well below 4% until Q3 2023...
...But timely indicators suggest demand for labour already is cooling, just as supply is starting to recover.
We expect the unemployment rate to rise above 4% before year-end, keeping a lid on wages and rate hikes.
The MPC's forecasts signal clearly that markets' medium-term expectations for Bank Rate are too high.
But concerns about persistence in domestic price setting, and looser fiscal policy, will spur further hikes.
We now expect the MPC to raise Bank Rate to 2.00% in September and 2.25% in November, and then to pause.
The effective interest rate on the stock of mortgages rose by only 11bp in H1, but will jump by 30bp in H2...
...and by a further 30bp over the course of 2023, if markets are right about the path for risk-free rates.
Firms still are very exposed to movements in short- rates; the transmission mechanism remains powerful.
We have revised up our forecast for Q4 CPI inflation by 1.0pp since early July; energy prices have surged again.
But we have revised down our forecast for the level of GDP by only 0.5pp in Q4; fiscal policy will respond.
People also have shown more willingness to deplete savings; we still expect a recession to be narrowly avoided.