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8 December 2017 Chinese Outflows Picking up? FX Reserves to Fall Again in 2018 (Publication Centre)

China's FX reserves rose to $3119B in November from $3109B in October. But the increase is explained by simultaneous yen, euro and sterling strength, which raises the dollar value of assets denominated in these currencies.

10 July 2018 China's FX Reserves Suggest the June RMB Slide was a Warning Shot (Publication Centre)

China's FX reserves were little changed in June, at $3,112B.

10 December 2018 Not a Great Moment for a Rise in China's FX Reserves (Publication Centre)

China's FX reserves rose to $3,062B in November, from $3,053B on October. On the face of it, the increase is surprising.

13 Mar. 2015 FX Markets Punish Imbalances When The Fed Hikes - Brazil At Risk (Publication Centre)

LatAm currencies have suffered in recent weeks. Each country has its own story, so the currency hit has been uneven, but all LatAm economies share one factor: Fear of the start of a Fed tightening cycle.

11 June 2018 Poor Growth is Keeping Inflation Low, Offsetting FX Pressures (Publication Centre)

Inflation is under control in most LatAm economies, and we expect headline rates to remain close to current levels in the very near term.

21 June 2017 Q3 LatAm FX Will be Driven by Fundamentals and Commodities (Publication Centre)

LatAm investors' concerns about U.S. monetary policy expectations and the broad direction of the USD should on the back burner until the Fed hikes again, likely in September. This will leave room for country-specific drivers to take centre stage. That should support Mexico's MXN, which already has risen 14% year-to-date against the USD, erasing its losses after the US election last November.

8 June 2018 The FX Sell-off has Put Central Banks Under Stress, will they Act? (Publication Centre)

EM risk sentiment remains grim as the Trump administration dispenses protectionist trade measures. LatAm's biggest economies, Brazil and Mexico, have been hit the hardest, with their currencies falling 3.3% and 2.2% respectively in the last week, the most in the EM world.

Asia Datanote: FX Reserves, China, April (Publication Centre)

In one line: Just a valuations drag; net capital outflows up modestly

5 January 2018 LatAm FX Started 2018 Strongly, but Risks Remain, Particularly in H1 (Publication Centre)

LatAm financial markets have performed solidly in the first sessions of the year, with most regional currencies trading more strongly against the USD.

8 May 2017 Rocky Commodity Markets Put LatAm FX under Temporary Stress (Publication Centre)

LatAm assets have done well in recent weeks on the back of upbeat investor risk sentiment, low volatility in developed markets and a relatively benign USD. A less confrontational approach from the U.S. administration to trade policy has helped too.

9 October 2018 PBoC RRR cut: The Lady Doth Protest too Much, Methinks (Publication Centre)

Over the weekend, the PBoC cut the RRR for the vast majority of banks. FX reserves data released shortly after suggested that the Bank already is propping up the currency.

20 September. 2016 LatAm's Disinflation is Gathering Speed - Rate Cuts Soon? (Publication Centre)

August inflation surprised to the downside across most of LatAm, as food price surges proved transitory, and the lagged effect of the FX depreciations last year faded. Brazil appeared to be the exception last month, but the underlying trend in inflation is downwards.

17 August 2017 China's Reform Scorecard Part Five: Monetary Policy Operation (Publication Centre)

Chinese monetary policymakers can rely on several different instruments to affect market and broad liquidity, ranging from various forms of open market operations to interest rates to FX intervention. The tool kit is constantly changing as the PBoC refines its operations.

10 April 2018 China's Capital Outflows Remain Modest, but will Pick up (Publication Centre)

China's FX reserves were relatively stable in March, with the minimal increase driven by currency valuation effects.

8 March 2018 Will President Xi's Power Grab Scare Capital out of China? (Publication Centre)

China's FX reserves fell to $3,134B in February, from $3,161B in January, after a year of gains.

22 Feb. 2016 Colombian Policymakers Borrow Banxico's Bazooka Strategy (Publication Centre)

Colombia's central bank, BanRep, increased the monetary policy rate by 25bp to 6.25% on Friday, as expected, and also announced budget cuts and a new FX strategy to try to protect the COP. These measures are similar to those taken by Banxico on Wednesday. The press release, and the tone of the conference after the decision, suggest that more hikes are coming.

8 June 2018 China is Ill-equipped to Keep up with Fed Hikes in the Next 18 Months (Publication Centre)

China's FX reserves data pointed to an about-turn in net capital flows in May, with capital leaving the country again after two months of net inflows, and a current account deficit in Q1.

Reuters Poll - Andres Abadia named Top FX Latam Forecaster for 2017 (Media Centre)

Andres Abadia named top Latam FX Forecaster for 2017 by Reuters

11 December 2018 Oil and FX Pass-through to Inflation Are Crosswinds in the Andes (Publication Centre)

The recent FX depreciation and falling oil prices are driving the dynamics of inflation across the Andean economies.

29 November 2018 We're Holding our Non-Consensus View for no Bank of Korea Hike (Publication Centre)

The Monetary Policy Board of the Bank of Korea will tomorrow hold its final meeting for the year.

29 September 2017 China's Pending Targeted RRR cut Implies SMEs are Struggling (Publication Centre)

China is set to ease reserve requirements for banks lending to small businesses. In a statement after the State Council meeting yesterday, Premier Li Keqiang said that commercial banks would receive a cut in their RRR , from 17% currently, based on how much they lend to businesses run by individuals.

29 November 2018 The Bank's Brexit Deal Scenarios are Consistent with a May Rate Hike (Publication Centre)

Predictably, the Bank of England's estimate that GDP would plunge by 8% in the first year after a disorderly no-deal, no transition Brexit and that interest rates would need to rise to 5.5% to contain inflation grabbed the headlines yesterday.

29 June 2018 Trade Tensions Unveil Chinese Financial Fragility (Publication Centre)

In previous Monitors, we have outlined our base case that the direct impact of tariffs on Chinese GDP will be minimal this year.

28 September 2017 Why is China's Party Congress Next Month so Important? (Publication Centre)

China's Party Congress is now less than one month away. Most commentators habitually add the words "all-important" before any reference to the event.

28 September 2018 The New IMF Agreement Diminishes the Default Risk at Least until 2020 (Publication Centre)

The Argentinian government and the IMF have finally reached a new agreement to "strengthen the 36-month Stand-By Program approved on June 20".

29 June 2018 Mexico's Presidential Race Nears the Finish AMLO has a Strong Lead (Publication Centre)

We are going to print two days before the July 1 presidential election in Mexico.

29 May 2018 EM Markets Remain Under Stress, but will LatAm Resist the Pressure? (Publication Centre)

A long period of extremely accommodative U.S. monetary policy generated sizable capital inflows and asset price appreciation in EM countries.

3 December 2018 The Bank of Korea has Come to the End of its Tightening Cycle (Publication Centre)

The Bank of Korea finally pulled the trigger, raising its base rate to 1.75% at its meeting on Friday. After a year of will-they-or-won't-they, five of the Monetary Policy Board's seven members voted to add another 25 basis points to their previous hike twelve months ago.

3 September 2018 Brazil's Economy was Resilient in Q2, but the Recovery is Sluggish (Publication Centre)

The Brazilian economy enjoyed a decent Q2, with GDP rising 0.2% quarter-on-quarter, despite the disruptions caused by the truck drivers' strike, after a 0.1% decline in Q1.

30 April 2019 High Political Risk in Argentina Offsetting Upbeat Economic News (Publication Centre)

Argentina's financial markets and embattled currency have been under severe pressure in recent weeks, with the ARS hitting a new record low against the USD and government bonds sinking to distress levels.

30 January 2018 China's January PMIs Should be Stable but then Drop in February (Publication Centre)

The Caixin PMI likely remained stable or even strengthened in January. The December jump was driven by the forward-looking components, with both the new export orders and total new orders indices picking up.

30 January 2019 Colombia's Economic Growth Prospects will Improve Soon (Publication Centre)

Recently released data in Colombia signal that the economy ended last year quite strongly.

3 October 2018 Mixed Activity Data in Brazil Ahead of a Contested Presidential Election (Publication Centre)

Brazil's industrial production surprised to the downside in August, suggesting that manufacturing is struggling to gather momentum over the second half of the year.

3 May 2019 Andean Central Bank's Dovish Tone to Continue In Coming Meetings (Publication Centre)

Inflation and growth paths remain diverse across LatAm, but in the Andes, the broad picture is one of modest inflationary pressures and gradual economic recovery.

3 August 2018 Brazil Likely will Keep Rates on Hold as Long as the BRL Behaves (Publication Centre)

The Brazilian Central Bank's policy board--the Copom--met expectations on Wednesday, voting unanimously to keep the Selic rate on hold at 6.50%.

28 November 2017 Political Uncertainty to Continue in Mexico Despite a Brief Pause (Publication Centre)

Mexico's political panorama seems to be becoming clearer, at least temporarily. This should dispel some of the uncertainty that has been hanging over the economy in recent months.

3 January 2018 Caixin PMI Overstates Momentum, but Activity will Strengthen in Q1 (Publication Centre)

The Caixin manufacturing PMI picked up to 51.5 in December from 50.8 in November. But the jump looks erratic and we expect it to correct in January.

3 July 2017 Will the Argentinian Economy be Oblivious to Political Risks? (Publication Centre)

Argentina's economic data released last week confirm that the economy is improving. Our core view, for now, is that the economy will continue to defy rising political uncertainty, both domestic and external.

3 April 2019 A Decent Industrial Report in Brazil, but the Rebound Remains Subpar (Publication Centre)

Brazil's February industrial production numbers, labour market data, and sentiment indicators are gradually providing clarity on the underlying pace of activity growth, pointing to some red flags.

26 June 2018 GDP Growth will Slow Sharply in Argentina in the Second Half (Publication Centre)

Data released last week confirm that the Argentinian economy was resilient at the start of the year, but downside risks to growth have increased.

24 May 2017 Soft Inflation Data Puts Pressure on BCB, Despite Brazil's Political Mess (Publication Centre)

Inflation pressures in Brazil are still easing rapidly. The mid-May unadjusted IPCA- 15 index rose just 0.2% month-to-month, much less than the 0.6% historical average for the month. Base effects pushed the year-over-year rate down to 3.8% from 4.1% in April. Food prices, healthcare and personal costs were the main drivers of the modest month-to-month increase.

24 Nov. 2015 A New Political Era For Argentina - Will the Economy Recover? (Publication Centre)

Mauricio Macri, the centre-right candidate of the Cambiemos--Let's Change--coalition won Argentina's weekend presidential election. Mr. Macri, the mayor of Buenos Aires, defeated Daniel Scioli, of the ruling Front for Victory--FpV--coalition on Sunday. His victory marks the end of the 12-year Kirchnerist era, characterized by wild inflation, huge public deficits and unsustainable subsidies. If Mr. Macri lives up to his promises, Argentina, the second-largest economy in South America, will become an orthodox economy on a sustainable path. The recovery will come, we think, but it will be a long and challenging process.

24 September 2018 Good News on Brazil Inflation, but all Eyes are on the Presidential Race (Publication Centre)

Broad-based inflation pressures in Brazil remain tame despite the sharp BRL depreciation this year, totalling about 7% in the last three months alone.

23 Oct. 2015 BCB Stuck Between Inflation Risks and Deep, Long Recession (Publication Centre)

Brazil economic and political outlook is still opaque, but grim, after a vast array of negative news. Impeachment of President Rousseff remains a possibility; the process of fiscal consolidation is messy and politically bloody; rumors that Finance Minister Levy might leave his post next year have intensified; and the latest data showed that the recession worsened in Q3. As a consequence, the BRL and interest rates have been under pressure and we see no clear signs that the turmoil will ease soon.

23 April 2018 Inflation Started Q2 Below the BCB's Target, but the Trend will Rise in Q3 (Publication Centre)

Inflation in Brazil remained subdued at the start of the second quarter, strengthening the odds for an additional interest rate cut next month, and opening the door for further stimulus in June.

23 July 2018 Inflation in Brazil Started Q3 Badly, but Temporary Shocks are Easing (Publication Centre)

Friday's inflation data in Brazil confirmed that the ripples from the truckers' strike in May were still being felt at the start of the third quarter.

23 February 2018 PBoC Fights Back Against RMB Strength but BoJ Le to Jawbone (Publication Centre)

The PBoC managed to keep interest rates well- anchored around the Chinese New Year holiday, when volatility is often elevated.

23 June 2017 Brazil and Argentina Under Renewed But Temporary Pressure (Publication Centre)

Financial markets in Brazil and Argentina have been under pressure this week, following negative news, both domestic and external. In Brazil, the Ibovespa index tumbled nearly 1.8% on Tuesday after a Senate Committee rejected the Government's labour reform bill.

22 May 2018 Maduro Wins Bogus Presidential Election, what will Happen Next? (Publication Centre)

President Nicolás Maduro has "won' another six-year term, as expected, even as millions of Venezuelans boycotted the election.

25 January 2018 Mr. Draghi Has a Lot of Explaining to do at Today's ECB Meeting (Publication Centre)

The ECB won't make any changes to its policy settings today.

27 April 2018 Mexico and Argentina had Good First Quarters, but Risks Remain (Publication Centre)

This week's Mexican retail sales report for February offered more support to our view that domestic conditions improved at the end of Q1.

27 June. 2016 Life After Brexit: LatAm Suffers Higher Volatility, But Will Survive (Publication Centre)

The U.K.'s unexpected decision to vote to leave the E.U. will have serious ramifications for the global economy, and LatAm economies are unlikely to emerge unscathed. It is very difficult to quantify the short-term effects due to the intricacies of the financial transmission channels into the real economy.

27 March 2019 Part Two Q&A from our Meetings Last Week RMB Stability (Publication Centre)

The main thing on investors' minds is how much more pain the global economy has to take as a result of China's slowdown.

26 February 2018 Inflation in Mexico is Starting to Fall Rapidly, but Banxico will Hike in April (Publication Centre)

Mexico's inflation is finally falling, giving policymakers room for manoeuvre.

25 May 2018 Brazil's Inflation Remains Low, Mexico's GDP Brings Positive News (Publication Centre)

In a relatively light week in terms of economic indicators in Brazil, the inflation numbers and the potential effect of the recent BRL sell-off garnered all the attention.

25 June 2018 Banxico Hikes Preventively, the Next Move Will Depend on the MXN (Publication Centre)

Mexican policymakers voted unanimously last Thursday to hike the main rate by 25bp to 7.75%, the highest since early 2009.

30 July 2018 Mexican Data are Upbeat, Strong Retail Sales and Low Unemployment (Publication Centre)

Economic data in Mexico continue to come in strong.

25 March 2019 Argentina's Economic Recession is Easing, but Political Risk is a Drag (Publication Centre)

Argentina's Q4 GDP report, released last week, underscored the severity of the recession, due to the currency crisis and the subsequent tighter fiscal and monetary policies.

27 September 2017 Venezuela's Economic Woes Continue, and the Clock is Ticking (Publication Centre)

Venezuelan bond markets have been on a rollercoaster ride this year, with yields rising significantly in response to heightened political uncertainty and then declining when the government pays its obligations or when protests ease.

5 July 2017 BoJ to Jettison Quantity Target as Voters Express Discontent (Publication Centre)

Mr Abe's Liberal Democratic Party took a drubbing at the polls in Tokyo's Assembly election over the weekend. The consequences for fiscal spending probably are minimal but the vote strengthens the case for increased emphasis on the structural reform "arrow" and less focus on monetary policy.

8 January 2019 Expect to See a Real but Lukewarm Q4 GDP Recovery in Japan (Publication Centre)

Yesterday's Nikkei services PMI report completed Japan's set of surveys for the fourth quarter of 2018.

8 May 2018 China's Diminished Current Account Surplus is Hugely Significant (Publication Centre)

China's current account dropped sharply in Q1, to a deficit of $28.2B, from a surplus of $62.3B in Q4.

8 May 2018 Brazil's Q1 Looks Poor - we Expect a Rebound Soon, but Risks Remain (Publication Centre)

Brazil's March industrial production report, released on Thursday last week, was weaker than we and the markets were expecting, while the recent deterioration in sentiment surveys highlights the downside risks to the rather fragile economic recovery.

8 February 2018 Japanese Wage Cost Pressures are Building, but the Yen is Competitive (Publication Centre)

Japanese firms hand out a significant portion of labour compensation through bonuses, with the largest lump awarded in December.

8 August 2018 Red Hot Japanese Wage Growth will Help the BoJ Unwind (Publication Centre)

We hadn't expected the scorching 3.6% year-over- year growth rate in Japan's June average wages

8 April 2019 Andean Economies Hoping for a U.S.-China Trade Deal Soon (Publication Centre)

Fears of a Chinese hard landing have roiled financial and commodity markets this past year and have constrained the economic recovery of major raw material exporters in LatAm.

8 April 2019 Recovering from the Shock of Japan's Wage Data... it's Not All Bad (Publication Centre)

Officially, Japanese wages have been falling year- over-year since January, marking a break from the gradual acceleration over the past 18 or so months.

8 August 2017 Chinese Capital Outflows Well -Managed while Conditions Benign (Publication Centre)

The external environment was relatively benign for China in July. The euro and yen appreciated as markets began to question how long policy can remain on their current emergency settings.

8 September 2017 China Probably is Content with its Modest "Safe-haven" Role, for now (Publication Centre)

Geopolitical tensions have risen sharply for Asia in the last few months, yet the RMB has appreciated sharply. China's currency appears to be playing some kind of safe haven role.

9 April 2018 Will China use the RMB Nuclear Option as Tariff Pain Rises? (Publication Centre)

China has a nuclear option in the face of pressure from U.S. tariffs, namely, to devalue the currency.

9 May 2019 China's Imports are U-Turning, but Exports Still Face Major Headwinds (Publication Centre)

China's trade surplus collapsed unexpectedly in April, to $13.8B, from a trivially-revised $32.4B in March.

9 November 2018 Brazil's Economic Outlook Keeps Improving Politics are Helping Too (Publication Centre)

News on Mr. Bolsonaro's economic plans and announcements on key names for his government this week are helping the currency and easing risks perception in Brazil.

9 November 2018 Ignore the Headlines the Tariffs are Starting to Hit China's Trade Flows (Publication Centre)

China's official, unadjusted trade data for October grabbed the headlines, as they look great at first glance.

9 May 2018 Improving Economies in the Andes, Inflation is Well Under Control (Publication Centre)

March economic activity in Chile expanded by a solid 4.6% year-over-year, pointing to Q1 real GDP growth of 4.0%, the fastest pace since Q3 2013, up from 3.3% in Q4.

9 March 2018 MXN Breathes Sigh of Relief as U.S. Exempts Mexico, but Risks Remain (Publication Centre)

It is still premature to make fundamental changes to our core views for the global or LatAm economy, following President Trump's plan to slap hefty tariffs on steel and aluminium imports, potentially escalating into a global trade war.

9 April 2019 Inflation in the Andes Remains Tame Despite Overshooting in March (Publication Centre)

Colombia and Chile faced similar broad trends through most of 2018.

9 April 2019 PBoC Resists RMB Weakness, Despite Exports Threat (Publication Centre)

We aren't convinced that China's recovery is in train just yet.

9 February 2018 China's Trade Surplus Knocked by Calendar Effects, RMB Takes a Cue (Publication Centre)

China's trade surplus tumbled to $20.3B in January, from $54.7B in December, surprising the consensus for little change.

7 November. 2016 U.S. Election is the Big Threat for LatAm Markets (Publication Centre)

The U.S. Presidential election will set the tone for LatAm's markets this week. Hillary Clinton's dwindling lead over Donald Trump in recent polls has unleashed pressure on EM assets.

7 November 2018 China's Q3 BoP Data Confirm Trade War-Related Capital Flight (Publication Centre)

China's unadjusted current account surplus widened to $16.0B in the preliminary report for Q3, from $5.3B in Q2.

4 June 2018 Trump's Tariffs are a Bad Omen for NAFTA Talks, Trade-War Risk Rising (Publication Centre)

Rising political risks and NAFTA-related threats have put the MXN under pressure last month, driving it down 4.9% against the USD, as shown in our first chart.

5 April 2017 The Brazilian Economy is Improving: Expect a Modest Q1 GDP Recovery (Publication Centre)

Brazilian February industrial production data, released yesterday, were relatively positive. Output rose 0.1% month-to-month, pushing the yearover- year rate down to -0.8% from 1.4% in January. Statistical quirks were behind February's year-over-year fall, though.

5 December 2017 Andean Economies Are Surprising Positively, but Politics is a Risk (Publication Centre)

Peru's inflation continues to surprise to the downside, paving the way for an additional rate cut next week.

4 July 2018 Consumption is on the Mend in LatAm but Downside Risks Abound (Publication Centre)

Consumption remains an important source of economic growth in LatAm.

31 October 2018 Mexico's Airport Cancellation will Damage the Economic Outlook (Publication Centre)

Mexico's financial markets and risk metrics plunged early this week, following the AMLO government's decision to cancel the construction of the new airport in Mexico City, after a public consultation held in the previous four days.

30 November 2018 Japan's Retail Sales Deliver a Rosy October Jump - Blip or Trend? (Publication Centre)

Japan's retail sales values jumped 1.2% month-on-month in October, after the upwardly-revised 0.1% increase in September.

30 October 2018 Policymakers in Chile and Colombia Opting for Divergent Paths, For Now (Publication Centre)

Inflation pressures remain under control in most LatAm economies, allowing central banks to keep interest rates on hold, despite the challenging external environment.

31 July 2018 Brazil's Solid External Accounts Offsetting Fiscal Risk, For Now (Publication Centre)

Brazil's external accounts remain solid, despite the recent modest deterioration.

22 March 2019 A Slightly Dovish but Prudent BCB as the New Boss Takes Over (Publication Centre)

At Wednesday's BCB monetary policy meeting, led for the first time by the new president, Roberto Campos Neto, the COPOM voted unanimously to maintain the Selic rate at 6.50%, the lowest on record.

5 July 2017 Cyclical Improvement in Brazil's Trade Balance is Nearly Over (Publication Centre)

Brazil's external position continue to improve, but we are sticking to our view that further significant gains are unlikely in the second half, given the stronger BRL. For now, though, we still see some momentum, with the unadjusted trade surplus increasing to USD7.2B in June, up from USD4.0B a year earlier. Exports surged 24% year-over-year but imports rose only 3%.

7 December 2018 Will the BoJ be Put Off Policy Adjustments by Market Turmoil? (Publication Centre)

Recent market turmoil and concerns on the outlook for global growth have re-awakened talk of stimulus. For the BoJ, this inevitably raises the question of what could possibly be done, given that policy already appears to be on the excessively loose side of loose.

7 February 2018 Global Liquidity has been Damaged Recently, but 2008 this is not (Publication Centre)

In terms of one-day moves, the drop in U.S. equities yesterday and Asian equities in the past two days has been pretty bad.

7 June. 2016 Are Eurozone Equity Markets Complacent About Brexit? (Publication Centre)

Recent polls in the U.K. have reminded markets that the vote is too close to call at this point, but investors in the Eurozone appear unfazed, so far. The headline Sentix index rose to 9.9 in June, from 6.2 in May, lifted by the expectations index, which increased to a six-month high of 10.0 from 5.5 in May.

7 December 2018 Chile's Central Bank will Stay in Cautiously Hawkish Mode in Q1 (Publication Centre)

Chile's central bank, the BCCh, held its reference rate unchanged at 2.75% on Tuesday, in line with the majority of analysts' forecasts.

7 August 2018 Is China Supporting the RMB by More than it is Willing to Admit (Publication Centre)

China's unadjusted current account was effectively in balance in Q2, after the deficit in Q1.

6 August 2018 China's PMIs Point to a Loss of Momentum in Q3 (Publication Centre)

China's PMIs point to softening activity in Q3. The Caixin services PMI fell to 52.8 in July, from 53.9 in June.

6 March 2018 Andean Economies are Improving, but Protectionist Threats Are a Risk (Publication Centre)

Chile's IMACEC economic activity index rose 3.9% year-over-year in January, up from 2.6% in December, and 2.9% on average in Q4, thanks to strong mining output growth and solid commercial, manufacturing and services activity.

6 March 2019 Andean Policymakers in no Rush to Modify their Neutral Policy Stance (Publication Centre)

Chile's IMACEC economic activity index rose 2.4% year-over-year in January, down from 2.6% in December, and 3.3% on average in Q4, thanks mostly to weak mining production.

30 June 2017 China's Government Still has Room to Clean up, but what if they Balk? (Publication Centre)

In the yesterday's Monitor, we presented an exagerated upper-bound for China's bad debt problem, at 61% of GDP. The limitations of the data meant that we double-counted a significant portion of non-financial corporate--NFC--debt with financial corporations and government.

21 February 2019 How High Would Inflation Get After A No-deal Brexit? (Publication Centre)

With a no-deal Brexit still a potential outcome and just over five weeks to go until the U.K. is scheduled to leave, it's about time we put some numbers on how high inflation could get in this worst-case scenario.

13 February 2019 Is the Collapse in the Argentinian Survey and Real Data over (Publication Centre)

We will be paying special attention to the sentiment surveys for Argentina over the coming weeks.

13 November 2017 Chinese Producer Price Increases Are Finally Slowing (Publication Centre)

Overall, the Chinese October data paint a picture of continued weakness in trade, with PPI inflation still high but the rate of increase finally slowing.

14 September 2017 PBoC Pushes Back on RMB Rise. Stability is Still King, for now (Publication Centre)

The RMB has risen strongly in recent months, initially with the euro and the yen, but China's currency rose on a trade-weighted basis in August.

12 October. 2016 After High Volatility in Q4, LatAm Currencies Will Strengthen in 2017 (Publication Centre)

Investors will increase their focus on exchange rates as the US presidential election and the Fed's next rate hike approach. Markets are becoming concerned that a surge in the USD could trigger another spike in LatAm currency volatility, depressing the good year- to-date performance of most local market assets.

12 June 2017 Brazil's Inflation is in Check, but Politics are Paramount (Publication Centre)

Brazilian political risk remains high but, as we have argued in previous Monitors, it is unlikely to deter policymakers from further near-term monetary easing. The political crisis, however, does suggest that the COPOM will act cautiously, waiting until the latest storm passes before acting more aggressively, despite ongoing good news on the inflation front.

12 February 2019 Japan's GDP Bounce-Back in Q4 will be Driven by Domestic Demand (Publication Centre)

Japan's preliminary GDP report for Q4 is out on Thursday, and we expect to see a punchy number.

12 January 2018 China's SAFE Could end up Diversifying Away from USD After all (Publication Centre)

China's State Administration of Foreign Exchange-- SAFE--yesterday refuted claims, made earlier in the week, that senior government officials had recommended slowing or halting purchases of U.S. Treasuries.

14 September 2018 A Tough Fiscal Overhaul to Avoid a Collapse Can Macri Succeed (Publication Centre)

Argentina's central bank held interest rates at 60% on Wednesday, as was widely expected.

14 September Weak Wage Figures Point to a Less Hawkish MPC than Markets Expect (Publication Centre)

Investors anticipate a shift up in the MPC's hawkish rhetoric today. After August's consumer price figures showed CPI inflation rising to 2.9%--0.2 percentage points above the Committee's forecast--the market implied probabilities of a rate hike by the November and February meetings jumped to 35% and 60%, respectively, from 20% and 40%.

16 August 2018 China's Phoenix Property Market Heats... Will it Help GDP Growth (Publication Centre)

It has been clear for some months now that China's housing market is refusing to quit, and July's data showed the phoenix rising strongly from the ashes.

16 Feb. 2015 Central Banks in LatAm Concerned about Inflation Pass-Through (Publication Centre)

Central banks in Chile, Peru, and Mexico hogged the market spotlight last week. Chile left its main interest rate at 3.0% on Thursday, for the fourth consecutive meeting.

16 July 2018 Mr. Duque Inherits a Colombian Economy Firing on all Cylinders (Publication Centre)

Last week's hard data in Colombia were upbeat, confirming that economic growth accelerated in the first half. Retail sales rose 5.9% year-over-year in May, overshooting consensus.

16 April 2018 Banxico and BCRP to Keep Rates Cautiously on Hold this Year (Publication Centre)

Last week, the Bank of Mexico unanimously voted to leave the main rate on hold, at 7.50%, its highest level since early 2009.

15 October 2018 Chinese Trade: Import from Anywhere but the U.S. (Publication Centre)

China's September trade numbers show that, far from reducing the surplus with the U.S., the trade wars so far have pushed it up to a new record.

22 June 2018 Copom Likely will Keep Rates on Hold, if the BRL Permits (Publication Centre)

Brazil's central bank looked through the recent dip in the BRL and left interest rates at 6.50% at Wednesday's Copom meeting, in line with the consensus.

15 June 2018. Will Private Consumption in Brazil Continue to be the Key Driver in H2 (Publication Centre)

Private consumption remains resilient in Brazil and recent data suggest that growth will continue over the coming months.

12 December 2018 China's Monetary Conditions are Still Tightening (Publication Centre)

China's M2 growth stabilised in November, at 8.0% year-over-year, matching the October rate.

11 Sept. 2015 Brazil's Cut to Junk Deepens Its Economic And Financial Woes (Publication Centre)

This year, Brazil has been the perfect example of all the problems faced by EM countries over the last few decades. A long and deep recession, high inflation, fiscal crisis, political chaos, a commodity price crunch, sharp currency depreciation and lack of confidence have all worked together to hammer the economy and investor confidence. These factors all contributed to S&P downgrading Brazil to junk status on Wednesday.

10 January 2018 Japan's Regular Wage Uptrend Remains Intact. More to Come (Publication Centre)

Japan's regular wage growth continued to edge up in November, maintaining the rising trend. The headline is volatile, with growth in labour cash earnings rising to 0.9% year-over-year in November, up from a downwardly revised 0.2% in October.

10 July 2017 PBoC and BoJ Choose Divergent Paths in the Second Half (Publication Centre)

The two major central banks of Asia have chosen hugely divergent policies. The BoJ has chosen to fix interest rates, while the PBoC appears set on preventing a meaningful depreciation of the currency.

10 October 2017 China's Services Sector Losing Momentum as Consumers Flag (Publication Centre)

We wrote last month about how the Caixin services PMI appeared to be missing the deterioration in several key services subsectors.

10 December 2018 LatAm Inflation is Ending the Year at a Comfortable Rate (Publication Centre)

With the exception of Mexico, November inflation was or below expectations in LatAm. Mexico's overshoot increases the likelihood that Banxico will hike its reference rate at the next board meeting on December 20.

1 October 2018 First Round of Brazil's Elections on Sunday, the Outcome is Uncertain (Publication Centre)

The first round of Brazil's presidential elections will take place this Sunday, followed by a probable runoff on October 28.

1 April 2019 The BCCh Finally Admits that the Economy is not Overshooting (Publication Centre)

Chile's central bank left its policy rate on hold last Friday at 3.0%, in line with market expectations, amid easing inflationary pressures and a struggling economy.

1 February 2018 China PMIs Distorted by Holiday E ects, Missing the Curbs Impact (Publication Centre)

China's manufacturing PMIs have softened in Q4. Indeed, we think the indices understate the slowdown in real GDP growth in Q4, as anti-pollution curbs were implemented. More positively, though, real GDP growth should rebound in Q1 as these measures are loosened.

10 October 2018 Prospects Overstated for a Tidal Wave of Returning Japanese Funds (Publication Centre)

Japan's August balance of payments data, released yesterday, offer the first overview of financial flows since the BoJ "tweaks" at the end of July.

10 September 2018 Japan's Big Wage Increases Point to Robust Q3 Private Consumption (Publication Centre)

Japan's labour cash earnings rose by 1.5% year-over- year in July, a strong result in the Japanese context, if it hadn't been preceded by the 3.6% leap in June.

11 October 2017 Peru's Central Bank Likely Will Ease Tomorrow, but Room has Shrank (Publication Centre)

Peru's central bank likely will cut its main interest rate by 25bp to 3.25% on Thursday. Inflation dipped in September and likely will increase only marginally in October, while economic growth was relatively sluggish at the start of Q3.

11 October 2018 Armageddon on Hold China Still Passes the Debt Stress Tests (Publication Centre)

We have recently looked at China's capacity to grow its way out of the debt overhang--see here--and whether last year's deleveraging can be sustained; see here.

11 March 2019 Chinese Authorities are Right to be Increasingly Worried about Exports (Publication Centre)

China's unadjusted trade surplus collapsed in February, to just $4.1B, from $39.2B in January.

11 July 2018 Will the Strength of Mexican Capex and Consumption Continue in Q3 (Publication Centre)

Recent economic indicators in Mexico have been relatively positive.

11 April 2018 President Xi Jinping Says the Grand Bargain is There for the Taking (Publication Centre)

President Xi Jinping yesterday reiterated China's commitment to reform and the opening of its economy at a highly-anticipated speech at the Boao forum.

11 January 2019 Benign Inflation in Mexico at the Year-end, but Pressures Remain (Publication Centre)

Mexico's inflation rate ended 2018 in line with market expectations, strengthening the case for interest rates to remain on hold in the near term.

16 Mar. 2015 Temporary Reversal - Bad Numbers for Mexico, Good for Brazil (Publication Centre)

Two key points can be extracted from the minutes of the last BCB meeting, when policymakers increased the Selic interest rate by 50bp to 12.75%. First, the bank recognized that the balance of risks to inflation has deteriorated, due to the huge adjustment of regulated prices and the BRL's depreciation, but it specifically referred only to "this year" in the communiqué.

15 December 2017 The PBoC's Meagre Hike Implies the RMB is set to Depreciate (Publication Centre)

Following this week's 25bp Fed hike, the PBoC hiked the main interest rates in its corridor by... 5bp. The move was unexpected so the RMB strengthened modestly; commentary is full of how this means the deleveraging drive is serious.

20 July 2018 Improving Political, External Conditions in Mexico How Long Will it Last (Publication Centre)

Mexican president-elect Andrés Manuel López Obrador, known as AMLO, has set out the first points of his austerity plan, two weeks after his overwhelming victory at the polls.

20 Mar. 2015 The Euro Probably is Undervalued, But it Could Move Even Lower (Publication Centre)

With the euro down more than 23% since the peak of 1.39 against the dollar last year, investors are pondering just how low the single currency can go. If the purchasing power parity holds in the long run, the real effective exchange rate, REER, should be stationary--mean reverting--around a constant average in the long run.

16 November 2018 Banxico is Pushed to Hike Rates Further Tactical Tightening is Likely (Publication Centre)

Banxico hiked its policy rate by 25bp to a cyclical-high of 8.0% yesterday, in line with market expectations.

20 February 2019 China's Current Account Surplus is Stabilising, but at a Very Low Level (Publication Centre)

China's current account surplus grew further in the final quarter of 2018, more than doubling to $54.6B, from $23.3B in Q3.

20 August 2018 LatAm Markets Were Under Stress This Month, Will Sentiment Improve? (Publication Centre)

While we were away, EM growth prospects and risk appetite deteriorated, due mainly to rising geopolitical risks and Turkey's currency crisis.

20 April 2018 Argentina's Fiscal Accounts on the Mend, but Inflation is a Key Concern (Publication Centre)

Argentina's government continues to show signs of reining in fiscal policy, with the primary budget balance improving steadily over the last year.

20 August 2018 EZ Inflation has Peaked for the Year, but Core Rate to Rise Further (Publication Centre)

Friday's final EZ CPI data for July confirm the advance report.

20 October 2017 Domestic Fundamentals Remain Positive for Brazilian Markets (Publication Centre)

Recent economic indicators in Brazil have undershot consensus in recent weeks, but the economy nonetheless continues to recover.

21 Apr. 2016 Argentina Returns to the Bond Market After 15 Years of Isolation (Publication Centre)

After a 15 year hiatus, Argentina returned to the global credit markets yesterday with the sale of a USD16.5B sovereign bonds, the largest ever dollar offering by a developing country. Argentina boosted the size of its offering to USD16.5B from USD15B after attracting orders worth USD70B. The country sold four tranches: 10-year debt at 7.5%, three- and five year yielding 6.25% and 6.875%, respectively, and 30-year paper at 8.0%.

22 August 2018 Venezuela's Economic Crisis Will Deteriorate Despite Recent Plan (Publication Centre)

To imagine an unstoppable macroeconomic policy disaster and desperate improvisation, just think of Venezuela.

22 January 2019 Commodity Prices are Edging Higher, Improving LatAm's Outlook (Publication Centre)

Recent global developments lead us to intensify our focus on trade in LatAm.

21 September 2018 Brazilian Policymakers Start to Open the Door for Rate Hikes (Publication Centre)

Brazil's domestic economic outlook has not changed much recently.

21 November 2018 Commodity Prices Struggle in the Trade War Will LatAm be Resilient (Publication Centre)

The sharp downtrend in commodity prices in recent months is alarming from a LatAm perspective.

21 July 2017 Venezuela's Economic and Political Crisis Deteriorates, Risks is Soaring (Publication Centre)

The risk of political change in Venezuela is coming to a boil, following President Maduro's plans for a new constituent assembly that has the power to rewrite the constitution and scrap the existing National Assembly.

21 May 2018 Banxico on Hold as Inflation Falls, but the MXN is a Risk (Publication Centre)

Mexico's central bank last week left its policy rate at 7.0%, the highest level since early 2009.

2 October 2018 PMIs Show China is Slowing Risks of a Government Overreaction (Publication Centre)

China's September PMIs, most of which were released over the weekend, mark out a clear downtrend in activity since late last year.

20 November 2017 PBoC Lets up After Tightening Ahead of Fed Hikes (Publication Centre)

The PBoC has let up on its open-market operations after allowing bond yields to move higher again in October.

17 September 2018 Brazilian Consumers' Spending is Slowing, but it Won't Collapse (Publication Centre)

Evidence of slowing growth in Brazil consumers' spending continues to mount.

18 January 2019 Good Economic Data for Bolsonaro and Macri at Least for Now (Publication Centre)

Data released yesterday confirmed that economic activity is improving in Brazil.

17 May 2019 Brazil's Economy Faltered in Q1 a Flimsy Upturn is in Prospect (Publication Centre)

Economic data released on Wednesday underscored that Brazil was struggling at the end of the first quarter, strengthening our case that Q1 GDP fell 0.2% quarter-on-quarter, the first contraction since Q4 2016.

17 January 2019 Special report: How Bad is China's Bad Debt, and can the Government Still Manage it? (Publication Centre)

In our daily Monitors we've talked about the four paths that we see for the Chinese economy over the medium-to-long term. First, China could make history and actively transition to private consumption-led growth.

2 May 2018 Argentina's BCRA Hikes Rates to Support the ARS, will it Work? (Publication Centre)

Argentina's central bank unexpectedly hiked its main interest rate, the 7-day repo rate, by 300bp to 30.25% last Friday, in an unscheduled decision.

17 January 2018 Peru's Economy Hit by Temporary Factors in Q4, Will 2018 be Better? (Publication Centre)

Monday's economic activity data from Peru signalled that the gradual recovery continues, despite November's undershoot, which was chiefly driven by temporary factors.

18 May 2018 Challenging Times for the BCB, Weak Growth and EM Risks Rising (Publication Centre)

Brazil's monetary authority adopted a neutral tone and kept its main rate on hold at 6.5% at its monetary policy meeting on Wednesday, surprising investors.

16 October 2017 China's Import Rebound Overstates Domestic Demand Strength (Publication Centre)

The Chinese trade surplus was reasonably stable on our seasonal adjustment in September, falling to $27.5B from $29.7B in August.

2 December. 2016 The Only Surprise this Weekend Would be if Renzi Wins (Publication Centre)

Opinion polls suggest that the Italian population will reject Prime Minister Matteo Renzi's constitutional reform on Sunday. Undecided voters could still swing it in favour of Mr. Renzi, but the "No" votes have led the "Yes" votes by a steady margin of about 52% to 48% since October.

2 February 2018 A Solid Finish to 2017 for Brazil, Pointing to Upside Risks (Publication Centre)

Brazil's December industrial production and labour reports, released this week, confirmed that the recovery remained solidly on track at the end of last year.

18 October. 2016 Conditions are Right For Brazil to Ease Tomorrow, More to Come (Publication Centre)

Inflation pressures in LatAm are moderating, and governments have been taking steps to pursue fiscal consolidation. These factors, coupled with a relatively favourable external environment, are providing policymakers with the opportunity to start relaxing monetary policy.

2 April 2019 Recent Data Confirm Argentina's Turnaround, but Politics is a Threat (Publication Centre)

Data released last week confirm that the Argentinian economy finally is stabilizing.

19 June 2017 Colombia's Economy Started Q2 Poorly, Expect a Sluggish Recovery (Publication Centre)

Evidence of slowing economic activity in Colombia continues to mount. Retail sales fell 2.0% year- over-rate in April, down from a revised plus 3.0% in March; and the underlying trend is falling. This year's consumption tax increase, low confidence, tight credit conditions, and rising unemployment continue to put private consumption under pressure.

18 September 2017 China's Monetary Conditions Herald a Slowdown in GDP Growth (Publication Centre)

The PBoC probably will start soon to run modestly easier monetary policy, but conditions have been tightening consistently for over a year, so a slowdown in economic growth likely is already locked in.

18 September 2017 Andean Easing Cycle Likely is Over, Growth is Picking up, at Last (Publication Centre)

Policymakers in Chile left rates unchanged at their monetary policy meeting last week, maintaining their neutral bias.

11 May. 2016 Inflation Pressures Easing in LatAm Following FX Appreciation (Publication Centre)

Mexican inflation pressures eased towards the start of Q2. Inflation fell to 2.5% year-over-year in April from 2.6% in March, due to a sharp fall in energy inflation--as a result of the introduction of new electricity tariffs in the warm season--and a fall in the rate of increase of fresh food prices. Depressed energy prices will continue to constrain inflation in coming months, but base effects will reduce the drag later this year.

17 August. 2015 Andean Central Banks Comfortably on Hold - But FX Still a Worry (Publication Centre)

The Andean economies were in the middle of a perfect storm in the first half of the year, suffering slow recoveries, accelerating inflation and plunging commodity prices and currencies. Under these circumstances it was no surprise that Chile and Peru last week left their main interest rates on hold, close to their lowest levels in four years. The pressure coming from their plummeting currencies, however, means their next moves likely will be rate hikes, but not this year.

20 Mar. 2015 LatAm FX Rally After Fed's Signal, But Relief Will be Temporary (Publication Centre)

The global economy is heading towards a new scenario, triggered by the impending start of the monetary policy normalization process in the U.S. In some major economies, notably the Eurozone, the Fed's actions will not derail or even jeopardize the cyclical economic upturn.

17 October. 2016 Banxico Minutes Confirm that FX Speculation is the Key Rate Threat (Publication Centre)

Banxico is one of the few central banks in LatAm to have hiked rates in 2016, and we expect it to remain relatively hawkish in the face of external risks.

24 August. 2015 Better Economic News Fails to Lift LatAm Sentiment - Fx Still Trashed (Publication Centre)

Mexico's economy continues to withstand several headwinds, especially the sharp currency depreciation--shown in our first chart--falling commodity prices, and the tough external environment. The country is still one of the economic bright spots in the region, thanks to its resilient domestic demand. June retail sales rose 5.4% year-over-year, well above expectations, and up from 4.1% in May. The underlying trend is positive, averaging 4.8% in the second quarter, well above its 2014 pace.

6 March 2017 Fed Fears Hit LatAm FX Last Week - is a Renewed Sell-off Coming? (Publication Centre)

LatAm assets have struggled in recent days as it has become clear that the Fed will hike next week. But we don't expect currencies to collapse, as domestic fundamentals are improving and the broader external outlook is relatively benign.

17 March 2017 Colombia's Economy is Slowing Rapidly, BanRep to Cut Further (Publication Centre)

The Fed's insistence this week that U.S. rates will rise only twice more this year helped to ease pressures on LatAm markets this week, particularly FX. The way is now clear for some LatAm central banks to cut interest rates rapidly over the coming months, even before U.S. fiscal and trade policy becomes clear. We expect the next Fed rate hike to come in June, as the labor market continues to tighten. If we're right, the free-risk window for LatAm rate cuts is relatively short.

12 June 2018 Andes' Disinflation is Over, but Risks will Remain Under Control (Publication Centre)

In yesterday's report we discussed the recent performance of current inflation and inflation expectations in the biggest economies in LatAm, highlighting that risks are tilted to the upside, given the recent FX sell-off and rising political and external risks.

12 October. 2016 Monetary Policy Divergence Will Push EURUSD to 1.05 Soon (Publication Centre)

The euro's spectacular rise against the pound has been the key story in European FX markets recently. But the trade-weighted euro, however, is up "only" 6% year-to-date, as a result of the relatively stable EURUSD.

19 Feb. 2016 What Next for Mexico After the Surprise Rate Hike? (Publication Centre)

Mexico's central bank, Banxico, capitulated in the face of the rapidly depreciating MXN and unexpectedly increased interest rates by 50bp to 3.75% on Wednesday, following an unscheduled meeting the day before. The decision was a unanimous, brave step, showing that policymakers are extremely worried about the FX sell-off, despite growth still running below potential.

23 January 2018 Why Have Rate Expectations Stopped Driving EURUSD? (Publication Centre)

In April last year, something odd happened in the FX market.

9 January 2018 China's Interbank Tightness is Attracting Capital from Abroad (Publication Centre)

China's FX reserves continued to climb in December, reaching $3.140T, up from $3.119T in November, with currency valuation effects negligible.

Andres Abadia

Andres Abadia authors our Latin American service. Andres is a native of Colombia and has many years' experience covering the global economy, with a particular focus on Latin America. In 2017, he won the Thomson Reuters Starmine Top Forecaster Award for Latam FX. Andres's research covers Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela, focusing on economic, political and financial developments. The countries of Latin America differ substantially in terms of structure, business cycle and politics, and Andres' researchhighlights the impact of these differences on currencies, interest rates and equity markets. He believes that most LatAm economies are heavily influenced by cyclical forces in the U.S. and China, as well as domestic policy shocks and local politics. He keeps a close eye on both external and domestic developments to forecast their effects on LatAm economies, monetary policy, and financial markets. Before starting to work at Pantheon Macroeconomics in 2013, Dr. Abadia was the Head of Research for Arcalia/Bancaja (now Bankia) in Madrid, and formerly Chief Economist for the same institution. Previously, he worked at Ahorro Coporacion Financiera, as an Economist. Andres earned a PhD in Applied Economics, and a Masters Degree in Economics and International Business Administration from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, and a BSc in Economics from the Universidad Externado de Colombia.

Question of the Week, WC 9th July (Media Centre)

Why is the EZ current account surplus rising and net exports falling at the same time? 

Consistently Right

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