Pantheon Macroeconomics - Pantheon Macroeconomics aims to be the premier provider of unbiased, independent macroeconomic intelligence to financial market professionals around the world.

Search Results: 82
Pantheon Macroeconomics aims to be the premier provider of unbiased, independent macroeconomic intelligence to financial market professionals around the world.

Sorry, but our website is best viewed on a device with a screen width greater than 320px. You can contact us at: info@pantheonmacro.com.

Website Search

Search Results

82 matches for " argentina":

30 August 2017 Argentina's Recovery is Gaining Traction but Inflation is Still a Risk (Publication Centre)

Recently data from Argentina continue to signal a firming cyclical recovery. According to INDEC's EMAE economic activity index, a monthly proxy for GDP, the economy grew 4.0% year-over-year in June, up from an already-solid 3.4% in May.

25 September 2017 Argentina's Economy is Improving, Good News for Macri and Markets (Publication Centre)

Argentina's economy continues to recover steadily.

24 Nov. 2015 A New Political Era For Argentina - Will the Economy Recover? (Publication Centre)

Mauricio Macri, the centre-right candidate of the Cambiemos--Let's Change--coalition won Argentina's weekend presidential election. Mr. Macri, the mayor of Buenos Aires, defeated Daniel Scioli, of the ruling Front for Victory--FpV--coalition on Sunday. His victory marks the end of the 12-year Kirchnerist era, characterized by wild inflation, huge public deficits and unsustainable subsidies. If Mr. Macri lives up to his promises, Argentina, the second-largest economy in South America, will become an orthodox economy on a sustainable path. The recovery will come, we think, but it will be a long and challenging process.

21 February 2018 Argentina's Inflation Remains Too High,but it Will Start to Fall in Q2 (Publication Centre)

Argentina's latest hard data suggest that activity is softening, but we don't see the start of a renewed downtrend.

30 May 2018 Argentina's Economy had a Solid Q1, but the Pain is Starting to Show (Publication Centre)

Hard data released in Argentina over recent weeks showed that the economy was resilient in Q1 and early Q2.

31 May 2017 Argentina's Economic Recovery Continues, but Brazil's is at Risk (Publication Centre)

The outlook for Argentina is improving. We expect economic growth to remain quite strong over the next year, despite a relatively soft start to 2017 and increasing external threats in recent weeks. The INDEC index of economic activity--a monthly proxy for GDP--is volatile, rising 1.9% month-to-month in March after a 2.6% drop in February, but the underlying trend is improving.

7 November 2017 Central Bank in Argentina and Peru to Leave Rates on Hold this Week (Publication Centre)

Argentina's central bank likely will leave its main interest rate at 27.75% tomorrow at its biweekly monetary policy meeting.

6 February 2018 Argentina Ended 2017 Strongly but Challenges are Mounting (Publication Centre)

Argentina's economy was improving late last year, albeit slowing at the margin, according to the latest published indicators. GDP data confirmed that the revival continued during most of Q4, with the economy growing 0.4% month-to-month in November.

5 July. 2016 Argentina's Economy is Still Shrinking, But Growth will Come (Publication Centre)

Argentina's overdue policy tightening, aimed at dealing with the country's severe inflation and fiscal problems, is underway. Printing of ARS at the central bank, the BCRA, to finance the budget, deficit has slowed and will be curbed further. Welfare spending, which accounts for nearly half of government spending, has been put on the chopping block.

21 Apr. 2016 Argentina Returns to the Bond Market After 15 Years of Isolation (Publication Centre)

After a 15 year hiatus, Argentina returned to the global credit markets yesterday with the sale of a USD16.5B sovereign bonds, the largest ever dollar offering by a developing country. Argentina boosted the size of its offering to USD16.5B from USD15B after attracting orders worth USD70B. The country sold four tranches: 10-year debt at 7.5%, three- and five year yielding 6.25% and 6.875%, respectively, and 30-year paper at 8.0%.

23 June 2017 Brazil and Argentina Under Renewed But Temporary Pressure (Publication Centre)

Financial markets in Brazil and Argentina have been under pressure this week, following negative news, both domestic and external. In Brazil, the Ibovespa index tumbled nearly 1.8% on Tuesday after a Senate Committee rejected the Government's labour reform bill.

17 October 2017 Will Argentina's Domestic Demand Rebound in Coming Quarters? (Publication Centre)

Recent data in Argentina confirm the resilience of cyclical upturn.

16 January 2017 Inflation Pressure Remains High in Argentina, but Will Fade This Year (Publication Centre)

Inflation pressure remained relatively high in Argentina last year, due mostly to the legacy of the Kirchner era. But we think inflation will ease this year, given the lagged effects of the recession and the fiscal consolidation.

12 July. 2016 Brazil and Argentina are Both Hurting, but Healing has Begun (Publication Centre)

Brazil and Argentina, South America's biggest economies are going through a metamorphosis. Brazil is emerging from its recession and a modest recovery is on the horizon. Exports have rebounded, thanks to the lagged effect of the BRL's sharp sell-off last year, and confidence has improved significantly in recent months. The likelihood that interim President Michel Temer will stay on as head of Brazil's government has also helped to boost sentiment.

20 November 2017 Will Argentina Succeed in Tackling High Inflation and Fiscal Deficits? (Publication Centre)

Argentina's economy is firing on all cylinders, thanks to improving fundamentals and a positive external backdrop.

19 March 2018 Argentina's Recovery Continues, but the Rebound is Facing Setbacks (Publication Centre)

Argentina's Recovery Continues, but the Rebound is Facing Setbacks

2 May 2018 Argentina's BCRA Hikes Rates to Support the ARS, will it Work? (Publication Centre)

Argentina's central bank unexpectedly hiked its main interest rate, the 7-day repo rate, by 300bp to 30.25% last Friday, in an unscheduled decision.

20 April 2018 Argentina's Fiscal Accounts on the Mend, but Inflation is a Key Concern (Publication Centre)

Argentina's government continues to show signs of reining in fiscal policy, with the primary budget balance improving steadily over the last year.

28 March 2018 Recent Data Confirm Argentina's Turnaround but Challenges Remain (Publication Centre)

Data released last week confirm that the Argentinian economy ended 2017 strongly.

20 December 2017 Brazil's Fiscal Outlook is Blurred, But Argentina's Has Just Improved (Publication Centre)

Politics will be the key factor in LatAm over the coming quarters, as presidential and legislative elections take place throughout the region.

2 January 2018 Higher Inflation Targets Open the Door for Rate Cuts in Argentina (Publication Centre)

A sharp ARS sell-off was the key highlight while we were away over the holidays.

18 June 2018 Colombia and Argentina, Facing Different Near-Term Prospects (Publication Centre)

Polls suggest that Ivan Duque has comfortably beat Gustavo Petro to become Colombia's president.

27 April 2018 Mexico and Argentina had Good First Quarters, but Risks Remain (Publication Centre)

This week's Mexican retail sales report for February offered more support to our view that domestic conditions improved at the end of Q1.

14 September 2018 A Tough Fiscal Overhaul to Avoid a Collapse Can Macri Succeed (Publication Centre)

Argentina's central bank held interest rates at 60% on Wednesday, as was widely expected.

3 July 2017 Will the Argentinian Economy be Oblivious to Political Risks? (Publication Centre)

Argentina's economic data released last week confirm that the economy is improving. Our core view, for now, is that the economy will continue to defy rising political uncertainty, both domestic and external.

FORBES - All Change In Argentina -- For The Better (Media Centre)

Chief U.S. Economist Ian Shepherdson on the recent elections in Argentina

27 July 2018 Argentina's Economy Plunged in Q2 When will it Stabilize (Publication Centre)

Data released this week confirmed that economic activity deteriorated sharply in Argentina in Q2.

10 November 2017 Argentina Fights High Inflation, But Colombia's Outlook Is Improving (Publication Centre)

The Central Bank of Argentina surprised markets on Tuesday, raising its main interest rate by 100bp to 28.75% to cap inflation expectations and push core inflation down at a faster pace.

28 September 2018 The New IMF Agreement Diminishes the Default Risk at Least until 2020 (Publication Centre)

The Argentinian government and the IMF have finally reached a new agreement to "strengthen the 36-month Stand-By Program approved on June 20".

28 Oct. 2015 Domestic Data Point to Robust Third Quarter Growth in Mexico (Publication Centre)

The Mexican economy is recovering gradually, despite many external headwinds. This week, the IGAE economic activity index--a monthly proxy for GDP--rose a solid 2.6% year-over-year in August, up from 2.0% in July. In the first half the economy grew on average 2.4%. The report showed increases in all three sectors, most notably agriculture, up 8.2% year-over-year, followed by services, 3.3%, and industrial activities, with a 1.0% gain.

29 January 2018 Brazil External Accounts Are Authorities' Least Source of Concern (Publication Centre)

Brazil's external accounts were a bright spot last year, again.

29 September 2017 External Accounts no Longer Improving in Brazil and Mexico (Publication Centre)

Brazil's current account deficit is stabilizing following an substantial narrowing since early 2015, thanks to the deep recession.

26 September. 2016 Mexico's Consumers Spent Freely in July, But Momentum Is Slowing (Publication Centre)

Mexican consumers started the third quarter strongly, supporting our relatively upbeat view for the economy in the near term. Private consumption represents about 70% of Mexico's GDP, one of the consumption shares in the EM world, so the strength of spending is hugely important.

29 May 2018 EM Markets Remain Under Stress, but will LatAm Resist the Pressure? (Publication Centre)

A long period of extremely accommodative U.S. monetary policy generated sizable capital inflows and asset price appreciation in EM countries.

24 March 2017 Rapid Disinflation will Allow the BCB to Ease More Quickly (Publication Centre)

Brazil has made a convincing escape from high inflation in the past few months, laying the groundwork for a gradual economic recovery and faster cuts in interest rates. Mid-March CPI data, released this week, confirmed that inflation pressures eased substantially this month.

22 March 2017 Improving Fiscal Picture in the South, but Politics Are Key (Publication Centre)

Growth in South America disappointed last year, but prospects are gradually improving on the back of rising commodity prices and the global manufacturing rebound. These factors will help to ease the region's external and fiscal vulnerabilities, particularly over the second half of the year. On the domestic front, though, the first quarter has proved challenging for some countries, hit by temporary supply factors such as a mine strikes, floods, and wildfires.

22 June. 2015 Twin Disaster for Brazil As Inflation Rises and the Recession Deepens (Publication Centre)

In recent weeks Brazilian central bank officials have reinforced their message that they will continue fighting inflation with "determination and perseverance". CPI inflation is failing to subside, at least at the headline level, where the latest readings are very disappointing, and expectations have remained stubbornly high. And the BRL has fallen 13% year-to-date, posing further inflation threats ahead. All these factors mean that the BCB will increase its main interest rate yet again in July.

22 May 2017 LatAm Markets Under Renewed Pressure, but Hold on, for Now (Publication Centre)

LatAm's relatively calm market environment has been thrown into disarray over the last few weeks.New fears of a slowdown in China, political turmoil in the U.S. and, most importantly, the serious corruption allegations facing Brazil's President, Michel Temer, have triggered a modest correction in asset markets and have disrupted the region's near-term policy dynamics.

23 July 2018 Inflation in Brazil Started Q3 Badly, but Temporary Shocks are Easing (Publication Centre)

Friday's inflation data in Brazil confirmed that the ripples from the truckers' strike in May were still being felt at the start of the third quarter.

3 June. 2016 Brazil's Recession Eased in Q1, But a Payback is Looming for Q2 (Publication Centre)

Brazil's recession eased considerably in the first quarter, due mainly to a slowing decline in gross fixed capital formation, a strong contribution from net exports, and a sharp, albeit temporary, rebound in government spending. Real GDP fell 0.3% quarter-on-quarter, much less bad than the revised 1.3% contraction in Q4.

25 January 2017 Brazil's Current Account Gap is Shrinking, but not for Much Longer (Publication Centre)

Brazil's external accounts were the bright spot last year, once again, but the ne ws will soon take a turn for the worse. The current account deficit fell to just USD24B last year, or 1.3% of GDP, from USD59B in 2015. The improvement was driven by the trade surplus, which rose to USD48B, the highest since 1992, when the comparable data series begins. A 20% plunge in imports, coupled with a mere 3% dip in exports, explain the rising trade surplus.

30 September. 2016 Trump Fears Prompts a Rate Hike in Mexico, the MXN Rallies, for Now (Publication Centre)

Mexico's central bank, Banxico, last night capitulated again to the depreciation of the MXN and increased interest rates by 50bp, for the third time this year. This week's rebound in the currency was not enough to prevent action.

7 April 2017 Mexico Sentiment is on the Mend as U.S. Threats are Easing, for Now (Publication Centre)

Sentiment has been improving gradually in Mexico in recent weeks, reversing some of the severe deterioration immediately after the U.S. presidential election. Year-to-date, the MXN has risen 10.3% against the USD and the stock market is up by almost 8%. We think that less protectionist U.S. trade policy rhetoric than expected immediately after the election explains the turnaround.

6 Mar. 2015 The BCB Hikes Again But The Tightening Cycle is Not Quite Over (Publication Centre)

The Brazilian industrial sector started this year on a very downbeat note, despite a 2% month-to-month jump in output. The underlying trend in activity is still very weak. Production fell 5.2% year-over-year.

7 September 2018 First Signs of EM Weakness in the Eurozone Hard Data (Publication Centre)

Yesterday's manufacturing data in German threw off a nasty surprise.

8 January 2018 Brazil's Industrial Sector and Foreign Trade to Remain Resilient in Q1 (Publication Centre)

Survey data have been signalling a relatively resilient Brazilian economy in the last few months, despite intensified political risk, and hard data are beginning to confirm this story.

8 May 2018 Brazil's Q1 Looks Poor - we Expect a Rebound Soon, but Risks Remain (Publication Centre)

Brazil's March industrial production report, released on Thursday last week, was weaker than we and the markets were expecting, while the recent deterioration in sentiment surveys highlights the downside risks to the rather fragile economic recovery.

6 Feb. 2015 Chilean Growth Is Improving, But China's Slowdown Is A Worry (Publication Centre)

Chilean GDP growth hit bottom in August, but activity is now picking up and will gather speed over the coming quarters. The tailwinds from lower oil prices and fiscal stimulus will soon be visible in the activity data.

5 March 2018 U.S. Steel and Aluminium Tariffs Will Have Little Direct Effect on LatAm (Publication Centre)

Global economic conditions have been improving for LatAm over recent quarters.

21 September 2018 Brazilian Policymakers Start to Open the Door for Rate Hikes (Publication Centre)

Brazil's domestic economic outlook has not changed much recently.

4 April 2017 Mexican Markets Had a Good Q1, the Next Test is on the Political Front (Publication Centre)

LatAm, particularly Mexico, has dealt with Donald Trump's presidency better than expected thus far. Indeed, the MXN rose 10.7% against the USD in Q1, the stock market has recovered after its initial post-Trump plunge, and risk metrics have eased significantly.

4 January 2017 Brazil's PMI Lost Momentum in Q4, but Should Stabilize Soon (Publication Centre)

Brazil's manufacturing PMI edged down to a six-month low of 45.2 in December, from 46.2 in November. This marks a disappointing end to Q4, following a steady upward trend during the first half of the year, as shown in our first chart. December's new work index fell to 45.2 from 47.7 in November, driving a slowdown in production, purchases of materials, and employment. The new export orders index also deteriorated sharply in December, falling close to its lowest level since mid-2009.

4 September 2018 Colombia's Recovery Continues, and the Fundamentals are Sound (Publication Centre)

Activity data from Colombia over the past quarter have been strong. Real GDP expanded by a relatively robust 2.8% year-over-year in Q2, and is on track to post a 3.2% increase in Q3.

3 September 2018 Brazil's Economy was Resilient in Q2, but the Recovery is Sluggish (Publication Centre)

The Brazilian economy enjoyed a decent Q2, with GDP rising 0.2% quarter-on-quarter, despite the disruptions caused by the truck drivers' strike, after a 0.1% decline in Q1.

15 February 2017 Poor Brazilian Retail Sales don't Change the Improving Trend (Publication Centre)

Brazil's consumer spending data yesterday appeared downbeat. Retail sales fell 2.1% month-to-month in December, pushing the year-over-year rate down to 4.9%, from -3.8% in November. This is a poor looking headline, but volatility is normal in these data at this time of the year, and the underlying trend is improving.

14 June 2017 Retail Sales Show Brazil's Gradual Consumer Recovery Continues (Publication Centre)

Evidence of a modest upturn in Brazilian consumers' spending continues to mount. Retail sales rose 1.0% month-to-month in April, pushing the year-over-rate up to +1.9%, from an upwardly-revised -3.2% in March.

12 October. 2016 After High Volatility in Q4, LatAm Currencies Will Strengthen in 2017 (Publication Centre)

Investors will increase their focus on exchange rates as the US presidential election and the Fed's next rate hike approach. Markets are becoming concerned that a surge in the USD could trigger another spike in LatAm currency volatility, depressing the good year- to-date performance of most local market assets.

14 March 2017 Commodity Prices won't Alter the Improving LatAm Picture (Publication Centre)

The medium-term outlook in most LatAm economies is improving, though economic activity is likely to remain anaemic in the near term. The gradual recovery in commodity prices is supporting resource economies, while the post-election surge in global stock prices has boosted confidence. But country-specific domestic considerations are equally relevant; the growth stories differ across the region.

15 August 2017 Weak Q2 for Mexico's Industrial Activity, but What Happens in Q3? (Publication Centre)

Last week's industrial report confirmed that the Mexican economy softened at the end of the second quarter. Industrial production was unchanged year- over-year in June, calendar-and seasonally adjusted, down marginally from +0.1% in May.

15 December 2017 Brazil's Consumption Slowed at the Start of Q4, but Expect a Rebound (Publication Centre)

Consumers' spending in Brazil slowed at the start of Q4, but we don't see this as the start of a downtrend.

12 Feb. 2016 Mexico's Industrial Economy Struggled in Q4 - Better Ahead? (Publication Centre)

Yesterday's Mexican industrial data painted a downbeat picture of the sector at the end of last year, and highlighted the downside risks facing the economy in the first half of this year. Industrial output fell 0.1% month-to-month and was flat year over-year in December, with weakness in all sectors except manufacturing. Overall, industrial activity expanded by only 0.2% year-over-year in the fourth quarter, the slowest pace since late 2013.

11 September 2018 EZ Investors are Still Depressed, Probably Excessively So (Publication Centre)

EZ investors remain depressed. The headline Sentix confidence index fell to 12.0 in September, from 14.7 in August, and the expectations gauge slid by three points to -8.8.

02 Mar. 2016 Chile Started the Year on a Soft Note - Mining Still the Main Drag (Publication Centre)

Chile's weak indicators in January confirm that the economy is struggling. Mining output plunged 12.6% year-over-year, down from a modest 0.6% contraction during Q4, due mostly to falling copper production and an unfavourable base effect. This will reverse in February but we still look for a 5% drop.

1 May 2018 Mexico's Economy Rebounded in Q1, Services Fired on all Cylinders (Publication Centre)

Yesterday's first estimate of Q1 GDP in Mexico confirmed that growth was resilient at the start of the year, despite the lingering hit to confidence from domestic and external threats.

10 Dec. 2014 Venezuela's Default Risk Increases as Oil Prices Continue Falling (Publication Centre)

2015 is set to be another grim year for Venezuela, and we have no hope things will improve further down the road, barring huge changes in policy.

11 October 2017 Peru's Central Bank Likely Will Ease Tomorrow, but Room has Shrank (Publication Centre)

Peru's central bank likely will cut its main interest rate by 25bp to 3.25% on Thursday. Inflation dipped in September and likely will increase only marginally in October, while economic growth was relatively sluggish at the start of Q3.

21 Oct. 2015 Colombia Resilient in the Face of External Headwinds (Publication Centre)

Colombia's industrial and retail sectors surprised to the upside in August, suggesting that the domestic economy has been resilient during most of the third quarter, despite the hit from an array of external headwinds. Industrial production increased by a solid 2.6% year-over-year in August, up from an upwardly revised 0.6% expansion in July, and above its recent trend. In the first half of the year, industrial activity fell on average by 1.1%, the worst performance since 2013, due mainly to the oil hit and ex tended works at Reficar, the country's second biggest oil refinery. But Colombia's manufacturers appear to have shrugged off part of the oil pain in recent months.

15 Jan. 2016 Modest Retail Sales Gains in Brazil in Q4, But Outlook Remains Murky (Publication Centre)

Wednesday's better-than-expected, but still grim, November retail sales report in Brazil does not change the miserable underlying trend. Sales volumes rose 1.5% month-to-month, much better than expected, and the biggest increase in a year. But the year-over-year rate fell to -7.8% from -5.7% in October. The details underscored our view that the month-to-month jump in sales was due mostly to temporary factors.

20 August 2018 LatAm Markets Were Under Stress This Month, Will Sentiment Improve? (Publication Centre)

While we were away, EM growth prospects and risk appetite deteriorated, due mainly to rising geopolitical risks and Turkey's currency crisis.

2 November. 2016 Brazil Industrial Output Remains Sluggish, but Q4 will be Better (Publication Centre)

Brazil's September industrial production report, released yesterday, confirmed the message from survey data that the sector stabilized towards the end of summer. Output rose 0.5 month-to-month, and August output was revised up by 0.3 percentage points.

20 September. 2016 LatAm's Disinflation is Gathering Speed - Rate Cuts Soon? (Publication Centre)

August inflation surprised to the downside across most of LatAm, as food price surges proved transitory, and the lagged effect of the FX depreciations last year faded. Brazil appeared to be the exception last month, but the underlying trend in inflation is downwards.

21 August 2018 Chile's Fundamentals are Improving This Likely Will Offset External Risks (Publication Centre)

Chile's Q2 GDP report, released yesterday, confirmed that the economy gathered strength in the first half of the year, consolidating a strong recovery that started in Q3 2017.

21 November. 2016 Soft Chilean Data Likely Leading to Rate Cuts Next Year (Publication Centre)

Chile's central bank left rates unchanged at 3.5% last Thursday, as expected, and maintained its neutral tone. Inflation pressures are easing, economic activity remains sluggish and global risks have increased.

18 December 2017 The Easing Cycle is Ending in Most of LatAm, Mexico will be the Outlier (Publication Centre)

Most central banks in LatAm have ended the year in a relatively comfortable position; their economies are improving and inflation is under control or even falling.

18 Dec. 2015 Macri Starts the Clean-up Job, Starting with the Overvalued Peso (Publication Centre)

The new Argentinian president has started to clean up the mess left by his predecessor, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner. President Mauricio Macri lifted capital controls, and let the ARS float freely yesterday. The peso tumbled about 30%, getting close to 14 ARS per USD, where it had been trading in the black market. The government also announced that it is on track to receive about USD 12-to-15B, to build up the battered foreign reserves, and to contain any overshooting. This money will come through many channels, for example, grain producers have announced that they will sell about USD400M a day over the coming weeks.

16 December 2016 LatAm Currencies Sell-off Post Fed Hike, but they will Stabilize Soon (Publication Centre)

LatAm markets reacted relatively well to the Fed's rate hike on Wednesday, which was largely priced-in. The markets' cool-headed reaction bodes well for Latam central banks. But it doesn't mean that the region is risk-free, especially as Mr. Trump's inauguration day draws near.

17 January 2018 Peru's Economy Hit by Temporary Factors in Q4, Will 2018 be Better? (Publication Centre)

Monday's economic activity data from Peru signalled that the gradual recovery continues, despite November's undershoot, which was chiefly driven by temporary factors.

17 June. 2016 Yet Another Hurdle: Brexit Fears Overshadow a Dovish Fed (Publication Centre)

This week's Fed meeting eased many LatAm investors' minds, fuelling rallies in most of the region's currencies. We think the U.S. labour market is going through a genuine soft patch but will regain momentum over the coming months, prompting policymakers to hike rates in September.

17 October. 2016 Banxico Minutes Confirm that FX Speculation is the Key Rate Threat (Publication Centre)

Banxico is one of the few central banks in LatAm to have hiked rates in 2016, and we expect it to remain relatively hawkish in the face of external risks.

26 June 2018 GDP Growth will Slow Sharply in Argentina in the Second Half (Publication Centre)

Data released last week confirm that the Argentinian economy was resilient at the start of the year, but downside risks to growth have increased.

Andres Abadia

Andres Abadia, who authors our Latin American service, was previously Head of Research at Bankia in Madrid. Andres is a native of Colombia and has wide and deep experience covering all the Latin American economies. He has degrees in Economics from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain and the Universidad Externado de Colombia.

Consistently Right

Access Key Enabled Navigation

Keywords for: Search Results: 82

pantheon macroeconomics, pantheon, macroeconomic, macroeconomics, independent advice, independent analysis, independent macroeconomic researcj, independent, analysis, research, economic intelligence, economy, economic, economics, economists, Dr. Ian Shepherdson, Ian Shepherdson, financial market, financial, market, finance, macro, macro research, independent macro research